Eye References In The Homeric Epics

The pineal gland produces its chemicals according to a regular oscillating beat, the basis of this beat being the so-called circadian rhythm. This pulse remains constant if darkness and light follow one another through the course of the day in a regular alternation. They found that the pineal responded somehow to light conditions, that by altering light conditions they could extend, contract, even stabilize the chemical production rhythms of the pineal. The physiological site of this sixth chakra, the sahasrara, is located in the center of the forehead; it is symbolized by an eye–the so-called third eye, the inner eye, or the eye of the mind. When this eye is opened, a new and completely other dimension of reality is revealed to the practitioner of yoga.

Some of the literature describes attacks, sudden, spontaneous, and totally unexpected, like that attack which overcame St. Paul on the road to Damascus. Reports of these kinds of exalted states have come to us not only through the literature of religious fanaticism; such accomplished scientists as Pascal and Newton have written of being overcome by mystic trances to which they attribute many of their creative insights. William James well understood that the mystic was often able to effect an almost miraculous synthesis between this world of “imagined” reality and the world of phenomena. In recent years, psychology has tended, to its discredit, to ignore these elements of William James’s thought.

Related eye symptoms and signs of irritation are discomfort, dryness, excess tearing, itching, grating, foreign body sensation, ocular fatigue, pain, scratchiness, soreness, redness, swollen eyelids, and tiredness, etc. These eye symptoms are reported with intensities from mild to severe. It has been suggested that these eye symptoms are related to different causal mechanisms, and symptoms are related to the particular ocular anatomy involved. Light energy enters the eye through the cornea, through the pupil and then through the lens. The lens shape is changed for near focus and is controlled by the ciliary muscle. Photons of light falling on the light-sensitive cells of the retina are converted into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve and interpreted as sight and vision.

Several suspected causal factors in our environment have been studied so far. One hypothesis is that indoor air pollution may cause eye and airway irritation. Eye irritation depends somewhat on destabilization of the outer-eye tear film, in which the formation of dry spots on the cornea, resulting in ocular discomfort.

There are many diseases, disorders, and age-related changes that may affect the eyes and surrounding structures. In addition, other measures are proper lid hygiene, avoidance of eye rubbing, and proper use of personal products and medication. Downward gazing is recommended to reduce ocular surface area and water evaporation.